This step is often overlooked because it is often hardest to tackle. A problem can be defined as the difference between something as it is exists and what is viewed as a satisfactory situation.
To determine this difference requires both that the present situation be defined interms that are clear and indisputable and that realistic and attainable satisfactory situation be agreed on by people who are affected by the problem.

In actual fact, a difference does exist between problem and its causes, though often this distinction is difficult to make, most individuals do agree on the problem definition but not all will agree on the problem’s causes. Most people define a cause interms of their particular area of interest.

Once the probable cause are normally sought. It is not proper to engage in evaluation simultaneously with searching for solutions. It is better to see for as many solutions as possible since the most unusual suggestion often turns out to be the best.

Once the possible solutions have been ascertained they must be assessed. They should be assessed using similar criterial. All solution must be evaluated interms of cost, time to implement, acceptability to those involve and how much the solution will contribute to solving the problem.

Once the solutions have been assessed, one or a combination of them should be selected and an action plan initiated. The steps to implement the solution should be ascertained. Solutions should be implemented with regard for measuring the solutions’ effectiveness.


Research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Research is a most important tool for advancing knowledge, for promoting progress, and for enabling man to reduce more effictively to his environment, to accomplish his purpose, and to resolve his conflicts.
Research is oriented toward the discovery of the relationships that exist among the phenomena of the world in which we live. Research is devoted to finding conditions under which a certain phenomenon occurs and the condition under which it does not occur in what might appear to be similar circumferences.

Research does not include the routine activities of applying what is already known or of teaching in the usual sense of the word. Research is reserved for activities designed to discover facts and
relationships that will make knowledge more effective. Frequenctly and individual who looks up a word in the dictionary or a historical fact in the encyclopedia claims he “researches” it. Other persons who purpose to do research are merely engaped in nothing more than fact-finding.


Philosophers have, over the years, sought to discover the source and basis of our knowledge. This explains why various sources have been suggested as the basis of our knowledge depending on the philosophical orientation of philosophers. For purposes of their relevance to enducation, we shall discuss six sources or types of knowledge.

According to Ezewu, intuitive way of knowing is that which involves an immediate insight or eruption into cosciousness of an idea produced by a long process of unconscinus work. This simply means that intuition is a way of knowing something that one cannot really explain because it transcends ordinary sense experience or reason. Intuition may occur as a sudden arrival of solution to one’s problem or puzzle, having worked for some hours or days without arriving at such solution. It may also come in the form of quick guess of solution to a problem presented by another person.

This is the type of knowledge acquired through the application of reason or intelligence withont reference to observable facts. It is a kind of knowledge that is firmly rooted on logical analysis for the fact that steps taken to acquire such knowledge can easily be explained to others and undestood by others. As a product of reflective thinking, rational knowledge is based on the three laws of rationality. Theses laws include:
(i) The law of identity
(ii) The law excluded middle
(iii) The law of non-contradiction
In terms of presenting valid reasoning, rational knowledge is more convincing than intuitive knowledge because it lacks emotional states of affairs and founded on logical relations and meanings. Rational knowledge can be applied to diferent areas like mathematical formulae and have been applied to some great intellectual advances in sciences and the arts.

The emperical knowledge is an attempt to discover a basis for our knowledge in sense experience. In other words, emperical knowledge is the type that finds recourse or confirmed by the evidence of sensory experience. It is thus derived from the use of the five senses since knowledge can only be acquired from the experience of seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling and tasting. It is the evidence of the senses that gives meanning to emperical knowledge since the senses, according to the empiricists, is the source and originator of our knowledge. The thrust of the empiricists as regard knowledge is that there is no knowledge prior to sence experience and there can be no knowledge outside sense experience. Since empirical knowledge is fundamentally rooted on sense experience, it stands to reason that observation and experimentation will also be basic to empirical knowledge.

This is the kind of knowlege acquired by making recourse to or depending on authority without verifying claims. This kind of knowledge is derived from the written works, documentation and reports of others. If Juliet accepts that Kano is the largest commercial city in northern part of Nigeria because he was told by his teache, such knowledge is authoritative. Again, if Juliet accepts that Asaba is the Capital of Delta State having read it from a book, his source of knowledge is accepted base on the athority of others. Authoritative knowledge is used in all academic activities as references are, most times, made to authorities, writters and autors in some specific fields. In the use of authoritative knowledge, care must be made to avoid unnecessary or psychological appeal to authority as this will make nonsence of this source of knowledge.

This is a claim to knowledge through revelation from some
supernatural of celestial beings. This type of knowledge is commonly found in religious parlance. For those who profess this knowledge, the condition is that there must be a total surrendering of oneself to the source of such revelation, that is, the supernatural being, is eternally superior and cannot be said to lie or make a mistake. In the christian fold, for instance, dreams, visions and even the Bible have come to be accepted as forms of revealed knowledge. In the Islamic tradition, the Koran is held to be an authoritative and revealed source of knowledge. In African traditional religions, the status of self-revelation is given to deities, ancestors, divination of oracles and dreams. Studies have shown that the bulk of knowledge we find in our religious institutions are informed by revelations of visions. However, it should be noted that revealed knowledge is associated with a major problem which is that of interpretation of messages. In other words, messages may be subjected to various or false interpretations and thus giving room for misledding knowledge. Revealed knowledge is also not suitable for classroom situations as teacher cannot impact objectives knowledge based on revelation.


Anger is a natural responce to threats, it inspires powerful, often aggressive feelings and behaviours which allow us to light and to defend ourselves when we are attacked. Therefore, a certain amount of anger is neccessary for survival. It is when anger is displaced, uncontrollable or is festering and interferes with social, norms, laws, boundaries, and commorn sense that it might be problematic.

We use a variety of processes. The three (3) main approaches to deal with angry felings. The healthiest way to express angry feeling is in and assertive, non-aggressive manner. Inorder to do this you have to learn how to make clear what your needs are and how to get them met without hurting others. Contrary to popular belief, being assertive does no mean being pushy or demanding. It means being respective to yourself and to others.

Angry can be suppressed then converted or redirected this happened when you hold in your anger, stop thinking about and falls on something else positive. The arm is to convert it into more
constructive behaviour. The danger with this type of response arises if your anger is not allowed to be expressed outwardly, it generally can be turned inward which could result in a range of problems both psychological and physiological or organic in nature. For example, condition such as hypertention, high blood pressure and depression are some of the ailment that can potentially develop.


I think you’ll like this bit of sage wisdom …

The most destructive habit – Worry
The greatest joy – Giving
The greatest loss – loss of self-respect

The most satisfying work – Helping others
The ugliest personality trait – Selfishness
The most endangered species – Dedicated leaders

Our greatest natural resource – Our youth
The greatest “shot in the arm” – Encouragement
The greatest problem to overcome – Fear

The most effective sleeping pill – Peace of mind
The most crippling failure disease – Excuses
The most powerful force in life – Love

The most dangerous pariah – A gossiper
The world’s most incredible computer – The brain
The worst thing to be without – Hope

The deadliest weapon – The tongue
The two most power-filled words – “I Can”
The greatest asset – Faith

The most worthless emotion – Self-pity
The most beautiful attire – A smile!
The most prized possession – Integrity

The most powerful channel of communication – Prayer The most contagious spirit – Enthusiasm

I never make excuses
I can do anything
I love people.